Various Alloys And Their Effects on Steel

In view of the fact that alloy steels are coming into a great deal of prominence, it would be well for the users of these steels to fully appreciate the effects of the alloys upon the various grades of steel. We have endeavored to summarize the effect of these alloys so that the users can appreciate their effect, without having to study a metallurgical treatise and then, perhaps, not get the crux of the matter.


Nickel may be considered as the toughest among the non-rare alloys now used in steel manufacture. Originally nickel was added to give increased strength and toughness over that obtained with the ordinary rolled structural steel and little attempt was made to utilize its great possibilities so far as heat treatment was concerned.

The difficulties experienced have been a tendency towards laminated structure during manufacture and great liability to seam, both arising from improper melting practice. When extra care is exercised in the manufacture, particularly in the melting and rolling, many of these difficulties can be overcome.

The electric steel furnace, of modern construction, is a very important step forward in the melting of nickel steel; neither the crucible process nor basic or acid open-hearth furnaces give such good results.

Great care must be exercised in reheating the billet for rolling so that the steel is correctly soaked. The rolling must not be forced; too big reduction per pass should not be indulged in, as this sets up a tendency towards seams.

Nickel steel has remarkably good mechanical qualities when suitably heat-treated, and it is preeminently adapted for case-hardening. It is not difficult to machine low-nickel steel, consequently it is in great favor where easy machining properties are of importance.

Nickel influences the strength and ductility of steel by being dissolved directly in the iron or ferrite; in this respect differing from chromium, tungsten and vanadium. The addition of each 1 per cent nickel up to 5 per cent will cause an approximate increase of from 4,000 to 6,000 lb. per square inch in the tensile strength and elastic limit over the corresponding steel and without any decrease in ductility. The static strength of nickel steel is affected to some degree by the percentage of carbon; for instance, steel with 0.25 per cent carbon and 3.5 per cent nickel has a tensile strength, in its normal state, equal to a straight carbon steel of 0.5 per cent with a proportionately greater elastic limit and retaining all the advantages of the ductility of the lower carbon.

To bring out the full qualities of nickel it must be heat-treated, otherwise there is no object in using nickel as an alloy with carbon steel as the additional cost is not justified by increased strength.

Nickel has a peculiar effect upon the critical ranges of steel, the critical range being lowered by the percentage of nickel; in this respect it is similar to manganese.

Nickel can be alloyed with steel in various percentages, each percentage having a very definite effect on the microstructure. For instance, a steel with 0.2 per cent carbon and 2 per cent nickel has a pearlitic structure but the grain is much finer than if the straight carbon were used omsi 2 herunterladen. With the same carbon content and say 5 per cent nickel, the structure would still be pearlitic, but much finer and denser, therefore capable of withstanding shock, and having greater dynamic strength. With about 0.2 per cent carbon and 8 per cent nickel, the steel is nearing the stage between pearlite and martensite, and the structure is extremely fine, the ferrite and pearlite having a very pronounced tendency to mimic a purely martensite structure. Steel with 0.2 per cent carbon and 15 per cent nickel is entirely martensite. Higher percentages of nickel change the martensitic structure to austenite, the steel then being non-magnetic. The higher percentages, that is 30 to 35 per cent nickel, are used for valve seats, valve heads, and valve stems, as the alloy is a poor conductor of heat and is particularly free from any tendency towards corrosion or pitting from the action of waste gases of the internal-combustion engine.

Nickel steels having 3½ per cent nickel and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent carbon are excellent for case-hardening purposes, giving hard surfaces and tough interiors.

To obtain the full effect of nickel as an alloy, it is essential that the correct percentage of carbon be used. High nickel and low carbon will not be more efficient than lower nickel and higher carbon, but the cost will be much greater. Generally speaking, heat-treated nickel alloy steels are about two to three times stronger than the same steel annealed. This point is very important as many instances have been found where nickel steel is incorrectly used, being employed when in the annealed or normal state.


Chromium when alloyed with steel, has the characteristic function of opposing the disintegration and reconstruction of cementite. This is demonstrated by the changes in the critical ranges of this alloy steel taking place slowly; in other words, it has a tendency to raise the Ac range (decalescent points) and lower the Ar range (recalescent points). Chromium steels are therefore capable of great hardness, due to the rapid cooling being able to retard the decomposition of the austenite.

The great hardness of chromium steels is also due to the formation of double carbides of chromium and iron. This condition is not removed when the steel is slightly tempered or drawn. This additional hardness is also obtained without causing undue brittleness such as would be obtained by any increase of carbon. The degree of hardness of the lower-chrome steels is dependent upon the carbon content, as chromium alone will not harden iron. When I asked the skid steer rental near me about what metals are used to manufacture the skid and shovels, it was no surprise to me at all that they use this very alloy. It’s pros definitely outweigh the cons!

The toughness so noticeable in this steel is the result of the fineness of structure; in this instance, the action is similar to that of nickel, and the tensile strength and elastic limit is therefore increased without any loss of ductility download pictures instagram. We then have the desirable condition of tough hardness, making chrome steels extremely valuable for all purposes requiring great resistance to wear, and in higher-chrome contents resistance to corrosion. All chromium-alloy steels offer great resistance to corrosion and erosion. In view of this, it is surprising that chromium steels are not more largely used for structural steel work and for all purposes where the steel has to withstand the corroding action of air and liquids. Bridges, ships, steel building, etc., would offer greater resistance to deterioration through rust if the chromium-alloy steels were employed.

Prolonged heating and high temperatures have a very bad effect upon chromium steels. In this respect they differ from nickel steels, which are not so affected by prolonged heating, but chromium steels will stand higher temperatures than nickel steels when the period is short.

Chromium steels, due to their admirable property of increased hardness, without the loss of ductility, make very excellent chisels and impact tools of all types, although for die blocks they do not give such good results as can be obtained from other alloy combinations.

For ball bearing steels, where intense hardness with great toughness and ready recovery from temporary deflection is required, chromium as an alloy offers the best solution.

Two per cent chromium steels; due to their very hard tough surface, are largely used for armor-piercing projectiles, cold rolls, crushers, drawing dies, etc.

The normal structure of chromium steels, with a very low carbon content is roughly pearlitic up to 7 per cent, and martensitic from 8 to 20 per cent; therefore, the greatest application is in the pearlitic zone or the lower percentages.


A combination of the characteristics of nickel and the characteristics of chromium, as described, should obviously give a very excellent steel as the nickel particularly affects the ferrite of the steel and the chromium the carbon. From this combination, we are able to get a very strong ferrite matrix and a very hard tough cementite. The strength of a strictly pearlitic steel over a pure iron is due to the pearlitic being a layer arrangement of cementite running parallel to that of a pure iron layer in each individual grain. The ferrite i.e., the iron is increased in strength by the resistance offered by the cementite which is the simple iron-carbon combination known to metallurgists as Fe3C. The cementite, although adding to the tensile strength, is very brittle and the strength of the pearlite is the combination of the ferrite and cementite. In the event of the cementite being strengthened, as in the case of strictly chromium steels, an increased tensile strength is readily obtained without loss of ductility and if the ferrite is strengthened then the tensile strength and ductility of the metal is still further improved psp spiele iso kostenlos downloaden.

Nickel-chromium alloy represents one of the best combinations available at the present time. The nickel intensifies the physical characteristics of the chromium and the chromium has a similar effect on the nickel.

For case-hardening, nickel-chromium steels seem to give very excellent results. The carbon is very rapidly taken up in this combination, and for that reason is rather preferable to the straight nickel steel.

With the mutually intensifying action of chromium and nickel there is a most suitable ratio for these two alloys, and it has been found that roughly 2½ parts of nickel to about 1 part of chromium gives the best results. Therefore, we have the standard types of 3.5 per cent nickel with 1.5 per cent chromium to 1.5 per cent nickel with 0.6 per cent chromium and the various intermediate types. This ratio, however, does not give the whole story of nickel-chromium combinations, and many surprising results have been obtained with these alloys when other percentage combinations have been employed.


Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium, carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon steel higher in manganese, but if a small quantity of chromium is added, then the vanadium has a very marked effect in increasing the impact strength of the alloy. It would seem that vanadium has the effect of intensifying the action of chromium and manganese, or that vanadium is intensified by the action of chromium or manganese.

Vanadium has the peculiar property of readily entering into solution with ferrite. If vanadium contained is considerable it also combines with the carbon, forming carbides. The ductility of carbon-vanadium steels is therefore increased, likewise the ductility of chrome-vanadium steels.

The full effect of vanadium is not felt unless the temperatures to which the steel is heated for hardening are raised considerably. It is therefore necessary that a certain amount of “soaking” takes place, so as to get the necessary equalization. This is true of all alloys which contain complex carbides, i.e., compounds of carbon, iron and one or more elements.

Chrome-vanadium steels also are highly favored for case hardening. When used under alternating stresses it appears to have superior endurance. It would appear that the intensification of the properties due to chromium and manganese in the alloy steel accounts for this peculiar phenomenon.

Vanadium is also a very excellent scavenger for either removing the harmful gases, or causing them to enter into solution with the metal in such a way as to largely obviate their harmful effects. Chrome-vanadium steels have been claimed, by many steel manufacturers and users, to be preferable to nickel-chrome steels. While not wishing to pass judgment on this, it should be borne in mind that the chrome-vanadium steel, which is tested, is generally compared with a very low nickel-chromium alloy steel (the price factor entering into the situation), but equally good results can be obtained by nickel-chromium steels of suitable analysis herunterladen.

Where price is the leading factor, there are many cases where a stronger steel can be obtained from the chrome and vanadium than the nickel-chrome. It will be safe to say that each of these two systems of alloys have their own particular fields and chrome-vanadium steel should not be regarded as the sole solution for all problems, neither should nickel-chromium.


Manganese adds considerably to the tensile strength of steel, but this is dependent on the carbon content. High carbon materially adds to the brittleness, whereas low-carbon, pearlitic-manganese steels are very tough and ductile and are not at all brittle, providing the heat-treating is correct. Manganese steel is very susceptible to high temperatures and prolonged heating.

In low-carbon pearlitic steels, manganese is more effective in increasing ultimate strength than is nickel; that is to say, a 0.45 carbon steel with 1.25 per cent manganese is as strong as a 0.45 carbon steel with 1.5 per cent nickel. The former steel is much used for rifle barrels, and in the heat-treated condition will give 80,000 to 90,000 lb. per square inch elastic limit, 115,000 to 125,000 lb. per square inch tensile strength, 23 per cent elongation, and 55 per cent reduction in area.

Manganese when added to steel has the effect of lowering the critical range; 1 per cent manganese will lower the upper critical point 60°F. The action of manganese is very similar to that of nickel in this respect, only twice as powerful. As an instance, 1 per cent nickel would have the effect of lowering the upper critical range from 25 to 30°F.

Low-carbon pearlitic-manganese steel, heat-treated, will give dynamic strength which cannot be equaled by low-priced and necessarily low-content nickel steels. In many instances, it is preferable to use high-grade manganese steel, rather than low-content nickel steel.

High-manganese steels or austenite manganese steels are used for a variety of purposes where great resistance to abrasion is required, the percentage of manganese being from 11 to 14 per cent, and carbon 1 to 1.5 per cent. This steel is practically valueless unless heat-treated; that is, heated to about yellow red and quenched in ice water. The structure is then austenite and the air-cooled structure of this steel is martensite. Therefore this steel has to be heated and very rapidly cooled to obtain the ductile austenite structure.

Manganese between 2 and 7 per cent is a very brittle material when the carbon is about 1 per cent or higher and is, therefore, quite valueless. Below 2 per cent manganese steel low in carbon is very ductile and tough steel.

The high-content manganese steels are known as the “Hadfield manganese steels,” having been developed by Sir Robert Hadfield. Small additions of chrome up to 1 per cent increase the elastic limit of low-carbon pearlitic-manganese steels without affecting the steel in its resistance to shock, but materially decrease the percentage of elongation warum kann ich netflix app nicht downloaden.

Vanadium added to low-carbon pearlitic manganese steel has a very marked effect, increasing greatly the dynamic strength and changing slightly the susceptibility of this steel to heat treatments, giving a greater margin for the hardening temperature. Manganese steel with added vanadium is most efficient when heat-treated.


Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a long time. The celebrated and ancient damascus steel being a form of tungsten-alloy steel. Tungsten and its effects, however, did not become generally realized until Robert Mushet experimented and developed his famous mushet steel and the many improvement made since that date go to prove how little Mushet himself understood the peculiar effects of tungsten as an alloy.

Tungsten acts on steel in a similar manner to carbon, that is, it increases its hardness, but is much less effective than carbon in this respect. If the percentage of tungsten and manganese is high, the steel will be hard after cooling in the air. This is impossible in a carbon steel. It was this combination that Mushet used in his well-known “air-hardening” steel.

The principal use of tungsten is in high-speed tool steel, but here a high percentage of manganese is distinctly detrimental, making the steel liable to fire crack, very brittle and weak in the body, less easily forged and annealed. Manganese should be kept low and a high percentage of chromium used instead.

Tools of tungsten-chromium steels, when hardened, retain their hardness, even when heated to a dark cherry red by the friction of the cutting or the heat arising from the chips. This characteristic led to the term “red-hardness,” and it is this property that has made possible the use of very high cutting speeds in tools made of the tungsten-chromium alloy, that is, “high-speed” steel.

Tungsten steels containing up to 6 per cent do not have the property of red hardness any more than does carbon tool steel, providing the manganese or chromium is low.

When chromium is alloyed with tungsten, a very definite red-hardness is noticed with a great increase of cutting efficiency. The maximum red-hardness seems to be had with steels containing 18 per cent tungsten, 5.5 per cent chromium and 0.70 per cent carbon.

Very little is known of the actual function of tungsten, although a vast amount of experimental work has been done. It is possible that when the effect of tungsten with iron-carbon alloys is better known, a greater improvement can be expected from these steels. Tungsten has been tried and is still used by some steel manufacturers for making punches, chisels, and other impact tools. It has also been used for springs, and has given very good results, although other less expensive alloys give equally good results, and are in some instances, better.

Tungsten is largely used in permanent magnets. In this, its action is not well understood. In fact, the reason why steel becomes a permanent magnet is not at all understood ps4 version 7 herunterladen nicht möglich. Theories have been evolved, but all are open to serious questioning. The principal effect of tungsten, as conceded by leading authorities, is that it distinctly retards separation of the iron-carbon solution, removing the lowest recalescent point down to atmospheric temperature.

A peculiar property of tungsten steels is that if a heating temperature of 1,750°F. is not exceeded, the cooling curves indicate but one critical point at about 1,350°F. But when the heating temperature is raised above 1,850°F., this critical point is nearly if not quite suppressed, while a lower critical point appears and grows enormously in intensity at a temperature between 660 and 750°F.

The change in the critical ranges, which is produced by heating tungsten steels to over 1,850°F., is the real cause of the red-hard properties of these alloys. Its real nature is not understood, and there is no direct evidence to show what actually happens at these high temperatures.

It may readily be understood that an alloy containing four essential elements, namely: iron, carbon, tungsten and chromium, is one whose study presents problems of extreme complexity. It is possible that complex carbides may be formed, as in chromium steels, and that compounds between iron and tungsten exist. Behavior of these combinations on heating and cooling must be better known before we are able to explain many peculiarities of tungsten steels.


Molybdenum steels have been made commercially for twenty-five years, but they have not been widely exploited until since the war. Very large resources of molybdenum have been developed in America, and the mining companies who are equipped to produce the metal are very active in advertising the advantages of molybdenum steels.

It was early found that 1 part molybdenum was the equivalent of from 2 to 2½ parts of tungsten in tool steels, and magnet steels. It fell into disrepute as an alloy for high-speed tool steel, however, because it was found that the molybdenum was driven out of the surface of the tool during forging and heat treating.

Within the last few years it has been found that the presence of less than 1 per cent of molybdenum greatly enhances certain properties of heat-treated carbon and alloy steels used for automobiles and high-grade machinery.

In general, molybdenum when added to an alloy steel, increases the figure for reduction of area, which is considered a good measure of “toughness.” Molybdenum steels are also relatively insensible to variations in heat treatment; that is to say, a chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel after quenching in oil from 1,450°F. may be drawn at any temperature between 900 and 1,100°F. with substantially the same result (static tensile properties and hardness).


Silicon prevents, to a large extent, defects such as gas bubbles or blow holes forming while steel is solidifying. In fact, steel after it has been melted and before it has been refined, is “wild” and “gassy.” That is to say, if it would be cast into molds it would froth up, and boil all over the floor herunterladen. A judicious amount of silicon added to the metal just before pouring, prevents this action—in the words of the steel maker, silicon “kills” the steel. If about 1.75 per cent metallic silicon remains in a 0.65 carbon steel, it makes excellent springs.


Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been the object of steel makers for years to eliminate it. On cheap grades of steel, not subject to any abnormal strain or stress, 0.1 per cent phosphorus is not objectionable. High phosphorus makes steel “cold short,” i.e., brittle when cold or moderately warm.


Sulphur is another impurity and high sulphur is even a greater detriment to steel than phosphorus. High sulphur up to 0.09 per cent helps machining properties, but has a tendency to make the steel “hot short,” i.e., subject to opening up cracks and seams at forging or rolling heats. Sulphur should never exceed 0.06 per cent nor phosphorus 0.08 per cent.

Steel used for tool purposes should have as low phosphorus and sulphur contents as possible, not over 0.02 per cent.

We can sum up the various factors something as follows for ready reference.

The ingredient Its effect
Iron The basis of steel
Carbon The determinative
Sulphur A strength sapper
Phosphorus The weak link
Oxygen A strength destroyer
Manganese For strength
Nickel For strength and toughness
Tungsten Hardener and heat resister
Chromium For resisting shocks
Vanadium Purifier and fatigue resister
Silicon Impurity and hardener
Titanium Removes nitrogen and oxygen
Molybdenum Hardener and heat resister
Aluminum Kills or deoxidizes steel

The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium in typical steel alloys for engineering purposes. It also gives the elastic limit, tensile strength, elongation and reduction of area of the various alloys, all being given the same heat treatment with a drawing temperature of 1,100°F. (600°C.). The specimens were one inch rounds machined after heat treatment.

Tungsten is not shown in the table because it is seldom used in engineering construction steels and then usually in combination with chromium. Tungsten is used principally for the magnets of magnetos, to some extent in the manufacture of hacksaws, and for special tool steels.

Carbon, per cent Manganese, per cent Nickel, per cent Chromium, per cent Vanadium, per cent Elastic limit, lb. per sq. in. Tensile Strength, lb. per sq. in. Elongation in 2 in., per cent Reduction of area, per cent
0.27 0.55 49,000 80,000 30 65
0.27 0.47 0.26 66,000 98,000 25 52
0.36 0.42 58,000 90,000 27 60
0.34 0.87 0.13 82,500 103,000 22 57
0.45 0.50 65,000 96,000 22 52
0.43 0.60 0.32 96,000 122,000 21 52
0.47 0.90 0.15 102,000 127,500 23 58
0.30 0.60 3.40 75,000 105,000 25 67
0.33 0.63 3.60 0.25 118,000 142,000 17 57
0.30 0.49 3.60 1.70 119,000 149,500 21 60
0.25 0.47 3.47 1.60 0.15 139,000 170,000 18 53
0.25 0.50 2.00 1.00 102,000 124,000 25 70
0.38 0.30 2.08 1.16 120,000 134,000 20 57
0.42 0.22 2.14 1.27 0.26 145,000 161,500 16 53
0.36 0.61 1.46 0.64 117,600 132,500 16 58
0.36 0.50 1.30 0.75 0.16 140,000 157,500 17 54
0.30 0.50 0.80 90,000 105,000 20 50
0.23 0.58 0.82 0.17 106,000 124,000 21 66
0.26 0.48 0.92 0.20 112,000 137,000 20 61
0.35 0.64 1.03 0.22 132,500 149,500 16 54
0.50 0.92 1.02 0.20 170,000 186,000 15 45

Certain steels have a very low rate of expansion and contraction in hardening and are very desirable for test plugs, gages, punches and dies, for milling cutters, taps, reamers, hard steel bushings and similar work.

It is recommended that for forging these steels it be heated slowly and uniformly to a bright red, but not in a direct flame or blast. Harden at a dull red heat, about 1,300°F. A clean coal or coke fire, or a good muffle-gas furnace will give best results. Fish oil is good for quenching although in some cases warm water will give excellent results. The steel should be kept moving in the bath until perfectly cold. Heated and cooled in this way the steel is very tough, takes a good cutting edge and has very little expansion or contraction which makes it desirable for long taps where the accuracy of lead is important herunterladen.

The composition of these steels is as follows:

Per cent
Manganese 1.40 to 1.60
Carbon 0.80 to 0.90
Vanadium 0.20 to 0.25

clip_image001FIG. 13.—Effect of copper in steel.


This shows the result of tests by C. R. Hayward and A. B. Johnston on two types of steel: one containing 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.012 per cent phosphorus, and 0.860 per cent copper, and the other 0.365 per cent carbon, 0.053 per cent phosphorus, and 0.030 per cent copper. The accompanying chart in Fig. 13 shows that high-copper steel has decided superiority in tensile strength, yield point and ultimate strength, while the ductility is practically the same. Hardness tests by both methods show high-copper steel to be harder than low-copper, and the Charpy shock tests show high-copper steel also superior to low-copper. The tests confirm those made by Stead, showing that the behavior of copper steel resembles that of nickel steel. The high-copper steels show finer grain than the low-copper. The quenched and drawn specimens of high-copper steel were found to be slightly more martensitic.


High-chromium, or what is called stainless steel containing from 11 to 14 per cent chromium, was originally developed for cutlery purposes, but has in the past few years been used to a considerable extent for exhaust valves in airplane engines because of its resistance to scaling at high temperatures.

Carbon 0.20 to 0.40
Manganese, not to exceed 0.50
Phosphorus, not to exceed 0.035
Sulphur, not to exceed 0.035
Chromium 11.50 to 14.00
Silicon, not to exceed 0.30

The steel should be heated slowly and forged at a temperature above 1,750°F. preferably between 1,800 and 2,200°F. If forged at temperatures between 1,650 and 1,750°F. there is considerable danger of rupturing the steel because of its hardness at red heat. Owing to the air-hardening property of the steel, the drop-forgings should be trimmed while hot. Thin forgings should be reheated to redness before trimming, as otherwise they are liable to crack.

The forgings will be hard if they are allowed to cool in air. This hardness varies over a range of from 250 to 500 Brinell, depending on the original forging temperature.

Annealing can be done by heating to temperatures ranging from 1,290 to 1,380°F. and cooling in air or quenching in water or oil. After this treatment the forgings will have a hardness of about 200 Brinell and a tensile strength of 100,000 to 112,000 lb. per square inch. If softer forgings are desired they can be heated to a temperature of from 1,560 to 1,650°F. and cooled very slowly. Although softer the forgings will not machine as smoothly as when annealed at the lower temperature herunterladen.

Hardening.—The forgings can be hardened by cooling in still air or quenching in oil or water from a temperature between 1,650 and 1,750°F.

The physical properties do not vary greatly when the carbon is within the range of composition given, or when the steel is hardened and tempered in air, oil, or water.

When used for valves the following specification of physical properties have been used:

Yield point, pounds per square inch 70,000
Tensile strength, pounds per square inch 90,000
Elongation in 2 in., per cent 18
Reduction of area, per cent 50

The usual heat treatment is to quench in oil from 1,650°F. and temper or draw at 1,100 to 1,200°F. One valve manufacturer stated that valves of this steel are hardened by heating the previously annealed valves to 1,650°F. and cooling in still air. This treatment gives a scleroscope hardness of about 50.

In addition to use in valves this steel should prove very satisfactory for shafting for water-pumps and other automobile parts subject to objectionable corrosion.

C 0.20
Mn 0.45
Cr 12.56
C 0.27
Mn 0.50
Cr 12.24
C 0.50
Cr 14.84
Quenched in oil from degrees Fahrenheit 1,600 1,600 1,650
Tempered at degrees Fahrenheit 1,160 1,080 1,100
Yield point, pounds per square inch 78,300 75,000 91,616
Tensile strength, pounds per square inch 104,600 104,250 123,648
Elongation in 2 in., per cent 25.0 23.5 14.5
Reduction of area, per cent 52.5 51.4 33.5
Carbon 0.24
Manganese 0.30
Phosphorus 0.035
Sulphur 0.035
Chromium 12.85
Silicon 0.20
Hardening medium Hardened from, degrees Fahrenheit Tempered at, degrees Fahrenheit Elastic limit, per lb. sq. in. Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in. Elongation in 2 in. per cent Reduction of area, per cent
Air 1,650 930 158,815 192,415 13.0 40.5
1,100 99,680 120,065 21.0 59.2
1,300 70,785 101,250 26.0 64.6
1,380 66,080 98,335 28.0 63.6
1,470 70,785 96,990 27.0 64.7
Oil 1,650 930 163,070 202,720 8.0 18.2
1,100 88,255 116,480 20.0 56.9
1,300 77,950 105,505 25.5 63.8
1,380 88,255 98,785 27.0 66.3
Water 1,650 930 158,815 202,050 12.0 34.2
1,100 90,270 120,735 22.0 59.8
1,300 66,080 102,590 25.8 64.8
1,380 67,200 97,890 27.0 65.2

This steel can be drawn into wire, rolled into sheets and strips and drawn into seamless tubes.

Corrosion.—This steel like any other steel when distorted by cold working is more sensitive to corrosion and will rust. Rough cut surfaces will rust. Surfaces finished with a fine cut are less liable to rust. Ground and polished surfaces are practically immune to rust.

When chromium content is increased to 16 to 18 per cent and silicon is added, from 2 to 4 per cent, this steel becomes rust proof in its raw state, as soon as the outside surface is removed. It does not need to be heat-treated in any way. These compositions are both patented.


The following steel specifications are considered standard by the Society of Automotive Engineers and represents automobile practice in this country. These tables give the S. A. E. number, the composition of the steel and the heat treatment. These are referred to by letter—the heat treatments being given in detail on pages 134 to 137 in Chap. 8. It should be noted that the percentage of the different ingredients desired is the mean, or halfway between the minimum and maximum.

S. A. E. Specification no. Carbon (minimum
Manganese (minimum
Phosphorus (maximum) Sulphur (maximum) Heat treatment
1,010 0.05 to 0.15 0.30 to 0.60 0.045 0.05 Quench at 1,500
1,020 0.15 to 0.25 0.30 to 0.60 0.045 0.05 A or B
1,025 0.20 to 0.30 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H
1,035 0.30 to 0.40 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H, D or E
1,045 0.40 to 0.50 0.50 to 0.80 0.045 0.05 H, D or E
1,095 0.90 to 1.05 0.25 to 0.50 0.040 0.05 F
S sky ticket movies. A. E.
Specification no.
Carbon Manganese Phosphorus
1,114 0.08 to 0.20 0.30 to 0.80 0.12 0.06 to 0.12
S. A. E. Specification no. Carbon (minimum
Manganese (minimum
Phosphorus (maximum) Sulphur (maximum) Nickel (minimum
Heat treatment
2,315 0.10 to 0.20 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 G, H or K
2,320 0.15 to 0.25 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 G, H or K
2,330 0.25 to 0.35 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
2,335 0.30 to 0.40 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
2,340 0.35 to 0.45 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
2,345 0.40 to 0.50 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 3.25 to 3.75 H or K
S. A. E. Specification no. Carbon (minimum and maximum) Manganese (minimum and maximum) Phosphorus (maximum) Sulphur (maximum) Nickel (minimum and maximum) Chromium (minimum and maximum) Heat treatment
3,120 0.15 to 0.25 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 1.00 to 1.50 0.45 to 0.75* G, H or D
3,125 0.20 to 0.30 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 1.00 to 1.50 0.45 to 0.75* H, D or E
3,130 0.25 to 0.35 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 1.00 to 1.50 0.45 to 0.75* H, D or E
3,135 0.30 to 0.40 0.50 to 0 80 0.04 0.045 1.00 to 1.50 0.45 to 0 75* H, D or E
3,140 0.35 to 0.45 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.045 1.00 to 1.50 0.45 to 0.75* H, D or E
3,220 0.15 to 0.25 0.30 to 0.60 0.04 0.040 1.50 to 2.00 0.90 to 1.25 G, H or D
3,230 0.25 to 0.35 0.30 to 0.60 0.04 0.040 1.50 to 2.00 0.90 to 1.25 H or D
3,240 0.35 to 0.45 0.30 to 0.60 0.04 0.040 1.50 to 2.00 0.90 to 1.25 H or D
3,250 0.45 to 0.55 0.30 to 0.60 0.04 0.040 1.50 to 2.00 0.90 to 1.25 M or Q
X3,315 0.10 to 0.20 0.45 to 0.75 0.04 0.040 2.75 to 3.25 0.60 to 0.95 G
X3,335 0.30 to 0.40 0.45 to 0.75 0.04 0.040 2.75 to 3.25 0.60 to 0.95 P or R
X3,350 0.45 to 0.55 0.45 to 0.75 0.04 0.040 2.75 to 3.25 0.60 to 0.95 P or R
3,320 0.15 to 0.25 0.30 to 0.60 0.04 0.040 3.25 to 3.75 1.25 to 1.75 L
3,330 0.25 to 0.35 0.30 to 0.60 0.04 0.040 3.25 to 3.75 1.25 to 1.75 P or R
3,340 0.35 to 0.45 0.30 to 0.60 0.04 0.040 3.25 to 3.75 1.25 to 1.75 P or R

* Another grade of this type of steel is available with chromium content of 0.15 per cent to 45 per cent. It has somewhat lower physical properties.

S. A. E. Specification no. Carbon (minimum
Manganese (minimum
Phosphorus (maximum) Sulphur (maximum) Chromium (minimum
Heat treatment
5,120 0.15 to 0.25 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 B
5,140 0.35 to 0.45 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 H or D
5,165 0.60 to 0.70 * 0.04 0.045 0.65 to 0.85 H or D
5,195 0.90 to 1.05 0.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.90 to 1.10 M, P or R
51,120 1.10 to 1.30 0.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.90 to 1.10 M, P or R
5,295 0.90 to 1.05 0.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 1.10 to 1.30 M, P or R
52,120 1.10 to 1.30 0.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 1.10 to 1.30 M, P or R

—Two types of steel are available in this class, one with manganese 0.25 to 0.50 per cent (0.35 per cent desired), and silicon not over 0.20 per cent; the other with manganese 0.60 to 0.80 per cent (0.70 per cent desired), and silicon 0.15 to 0.50 per cent.

S. A. E. Specification no. Carbon (minimum
Manganese (minimum
Phosphorus (maximum) Sulphur (maximum) Chromium (minimum
Vanadium (minimum
Heat treatment
6,120 0.15 to 0.25 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 S
6,125 0.20 to 0.30 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 S or T
6,130 0.25 to 0.35 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,135 0.30 to 0.40 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,140 0.35 to 0.45 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 T or U
6,145 0.40 to 0.50 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
6,150 0.45 to 0.55 0.50 to 0.80 0.04 0.04 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
6,195 0.90 to 1.05 0.20 to 0.45 0.03 0.03 0.80 to 1.10 0.15 U
S. A. E. Specification no. Carbon (minimum
Manganese (minimum
Phosphorus (maximum) Sulphur (maximum) Silicon (minimum
Heat treatment
9,250 0.45 to 0.55 0.60 to 0.80 0.045* 0.045 1.80 to 2.10 V
9,260 0.55 to 0.65 0.50 to 0.70 0.045* 0.045 1.50 to 1.80 V

* Steel made by the acid process may contain maximum 0.05 phosphorus.