M ODERN scientific publications, although they may in some or even many cases equal in their scientific quality the memoirs of earlier workers, do not, on the average, reach a high standard as regards illustration. For instance, in Great Britain botany is pre-eminent in its morphological aspects; it should therefore follow that the illustrations, which form so important a part of such papers, should be beyond reproach pdf24 download deutsch kostenlos. This is not always so, a fact which must be patent to anyone with the slightest critical knowledge who looks through a typical journal. This is a fact much to be regretted, since many of the earlier scientists were accomplished draughtsmen and, indeed, often artists; in this connection the Hookers and Professor Daniel Oliver may be mentioned. The implication is not intended that there are no good amateur draughtsmen nowadays; there are, and in some cases possessed of great ability. The beautiful work of Church in his Floral Mechanisms may be cited as an example fortnite auf ps4 herunterladen.
It may, of course, be argued that any picture which serves to illustrate the particular feature is good enough; this is the contention of one who takes an insufficient pride in his work. A feature worthy of an illustration deserves the best the author can produce, more especially as a literary form is still, fortunately, preserved or, at any rate, aimed at orf tvthek videoen.
The reason for indifferent illustrations is primarily due to bad or mediocre drawings, or to their unsuitability for the kind of reproduction in view.
With regard to the first point: this lack of draughtsmanship often obtains; when education entirely replaces mere instruction, it is to be hoped that all students of page xscience will be trained in the rudiments of drawing wie kann ich mir fortnite herunterladen. Meanwhile the difficulty can be partly overcome, as will be seen later on, by the simple means of drawing on an enlarged scale, in order that in reproduction reduction can be made.
The second reason, the onus of which also falls on the authors, is a lack of knowledge regarding the kind of drawing suitable for the different modes of reproduction; this is a very important point, for “technical conditions govern even genius itself.”
Authors, however, are not always to blame; it would appear that even editors sometimes are wanting in the requisite knowledge, for we have known straightforward line drawings reproduced by half-tone; in other cases the paper used is unsuitable for the reproduction and, at other times, the printers are at fault itunes video herunterladen.
With a view to remedying, at any rate in part, these deficiencies, a course of lectures, arranged by the Board of Studies in Botany of the University of London, was delivered in the Lent term of 1913 in the Department of Botany of University College, London.
In gratifying the wish expressed by some that these lectures should be given a more permanent dress, the author feels that some apology is necessary, for he can lay no claim to authoritative knowledge of much of the subject-matter; questions relating to the graphic arts and to illustrations, however, have always been of interest to him, so that he has tried various experiments, often with disastrous results, and thus has gained some experience herunterladen.
In these matters the author has benefited much through his association with Professor F. W. Oliver, who, characteristically, has been ever ready to discuss these problems with, and to place his knowledge and experience at the disposal of the author.
The outline of the ways and means of illustration page xicontained in the following pages is primarily intended for ordinary working scientists, not for artists, professional draughtsmen or skilled amateurs amazon appstore herunterladen.
The point of view is mainly botanical, primarily because the present writer is a botanist and also because the requirements of modern botany in the way of illustrations are more extensive than those of any other science; the requirements of other sciences, however, have not been overlooked. With regard to other branches of knowledge, the principles considered will, it is hoped, prove of some value to the workers therein.
The details of technique have been kept as brief as possible; in fact, sufficient only has been said to indicate the main principles involved prince of persia für pc kostenlos downloaden. In the literature cited, to which the author is indebted particularly for matters relating to technique, will be found full, and sometimes exhaustive, accounts.
With regard to the illustrations, these have been selected to illustrate the various methods of reproduction described or to demonstrate the points raised tomtom xxl herunterladen. In those instances where the source has not been acknowledged or the draughtsman or photographer mentioned by name, the figure is by the author: and since the actual making of plates and blocks is of considerable importance, the firms, when known, responsible for their making are mentioned in the Table of Illustrations. In this connexion the author desires to express his appreciation of the skill shewn and care taken by Messrs. André, Sleigh and Anglo, Limited, who prepared the majority of the new illustrations which appear in the following pages kindle ebook herunterladen.
The author is indebted to many who have helped in various ways in the production of his work; particularly is he desirous of expressing his warmest thanks to Miss O. Johnston for the charming drawing of Geranium columbinum (Plate 2) and to Mr. Harry Becker for his beautiful lithograph (Plate 1). To Miss S. M. Baker, page xiiDr. W. G. Ridewood, and Miss Winifred Smith thanks are due for the loan of original drawings; also to Mr. Edward Hunter and Mr. Hugh Hunter for information regarding matters of technique and cost.
The number of illustrations would have been less but for the generosity of Messrs. Chapman and Hall, the Editors of the “Annals of Botany,” “The Imprint,” and the “New Phytologist,” Professor F. W. Oliver and Mr. G. N. Oliver in lending blocks. Recognition also must be made of the kindness of Mr. Richard G. Hatton in consenting to the use of certain blocks from his admirable “Craftsman’s Handbook,” of the Delegates of the Clarendon Press for permission to reproduce figure 14, and of Messrs. Frederick Warne and Co. for permission to make use of the wood engraving by Messrs. Edmund Evans, Ltd., of Kate Greenaway’s charming Milkmaid. Finally, the author desires to express his sincerest thanks to Mr. Gerard T. Meynell, of The Westminster Press, for the keen interest he has taken in the work, for his help with the illustrations, and for the great care he has taken in the production of the book.
University College, London