How To Study Living Animals


The Cat or Dog—Carnivora
Materials.

Living specimens of cats or dogs. Pictures, books, lantern slides, etc herunterladen. Supplement the laboratory study with trips to museums and zoölogical gardens to observe the relatives of the cat.

Definitions herunterladen.

Carnivora.

An order of mammals, chiefly flesh-eating, with claws and well-developed canine teeth.

Carnivorous,

flesh-eating microsoft office kostenlos downloaden vollversion deutsch chip.

Herbivorous,

plant-eating.

Omnivorous,

eating both plants and animal food.

Digitigrade,

walking on the toes.

Plantigrade,

walking on the soles of the feet.

Vibrissæ,

long hairs on the face—”whiskers.”

Observations.

1. Into what regions is the body divided?

2. What is the shape of the head and the length of the neck?

3. Are the legs relatively long or short? How do the front and hind legs compare in length? How many toes on each foot? Is the cat digitigrade or plantigrade?

4. How many pads on the sole of the foot? What use can you suggest for these structures? What is the size and shape of the claws? Are they retractile or nonretractile? For what purposes may the claws be used?

5. Describe the tail as to length and appearance. Movements.

6. What is the size and appearance of the external ears? What movement do you notice?

7. Are the eyes large or small? What eyelids can you find? What other accessory structures? What is the shape and direction of the pupil?

8. What other sensory structures do you find? What is their function?

9. Watch the animal eat. Does it chew or “fletcherize” its food? What teeth seem well developed? Is the movement of the jaws simply up and down, or is there a lateral movement as well?

10. Try to find out some of the mental characteristics of the animal, i.e. is it sluggish or active? Is it alert? Does it show curiosity? fear? What evidence of intelligence?

Supplementary studies.

a. Smear the feet of a cat with ink and allow it to run on a sheet of clean paper. Make a diagram to show tracks. Do the same in case of a dog. How do these tracks differ? Why?

b. What is the difference between a cat and a dog as to the manner of eating a bone?

c. As you see dogs and cats outside do you see any evidence in either case of a tendency to gather in packs (gregariousness)?

d. What different emotions are expressed by a dog’s tail? a cat’s tail?

e. What sounds do cats and dogs make? Significance?

f. Contrast the sleeping habits of cats and dogs.

g. How large is the litter in case of dogs and cats? Condition of young at birth? How long before the eyes of the young are open? Care of young.

Summary.

To what kind of life does a cat or dog seem best adapted: (a) as to food? (b) protection from enemies?