How To Study Living Animals

The Ungulates

Pictures, charts, lantern slides, and books showing cow, sheep, hog, goat, horse, etc herunterladen. Diagram of skeleton.


Since it is impossible to have living ungulates in the laboratory, this study should be supplemented by trips to a museum and to a zoölogical garden herunterladen. Observe also such hoofed animals as may be common in your neighborhood. Use your camera and make “snapshots,” showing characteristic attitudes of these animals microsoft office kostenlos downloaden vollversion deutsch chip.



an order of mammals characterized by the possession of hoofs.


a division of ungulates, which “chew the cud.”


a division of ungulates with an odd number of toes.


a division of ungulates with an even number of toes.






eating both plant and animal food.

Observations in the laboratory.

Note.—Answer the following questions for one or more of the following: The cow, sheep, goat, hog, and horse. If desired, the questions may be answered in the form of a table.

1. What is the relative length of the neck? What is its direction with reference to the body? Of what importance is this length and direction?

2. What is the length and appearance of the tail? What is its use?

3. What is the relative length of the legs? Locate the heel, knee, and elbow. (Reference should be made to a diagram of a skeleton.) When the leg is long, in which bone is this lengthening accomplished (compared with human skeleton)?

4. How many toes on each foot? Is the animal an artiodactyl or a perissodactyl? Is it plantigrade or digitigrade?

5. What is the relative size and position of the ears (external ear)?

6. What is the relative size and position of the eyes? nostrils?

7. Are horns of any kind present? If so, note the size, shape, and direction. Are they present in both sexes? If not, in which one? If in both, note any differences distinguishing the sexes.

Suggested drawings.

a. Head, side view.

b. Entire animal, side view.