How To Study Living Animals


1. Describe the size, appearance, and colors of the plant lice in your collection and their relation to the host plant herunterladen.

2. Are the lice active or sluggish? (Compare with a house fly, for instance.) What proportion of them have wings? What is the usual method of locomotion herunterladen?

3. Examining a single winged specimen, how many wings do you find? How do they fold? What is the character of the wings?

4. What is the food of the plant lice microsoft office kostenlos downloaden vollversion deutsch chip? How is the food obtained? (With a hand lens identify the piercing organ.) On what parts of the plants are they found? Does the plant show any indication of being harmed by the lice? If so, how?

5. Make a count of the plant lice upon a portion of a plant and estimate the whole number upon a plant. Why are plant lice a very serious pest?

6. If any plant lice have ants associated with them, study the behavior of the ants in this curious relationship. What advantages result from this relationship of ant and aphis to either or both insects?

Scale Bugs

Twigs of trees, leaves, fruit, ferns, etc., infested with these bugs. If possible, have samples of San José scales, maple scales, and oyster scales.


1. What is the general size and appearance of the various scale bugs in your collection? How do they differ in form and size and color?

2. Remove a scale and study it carefully with a lens. What is under the scale? Of what is the scale composed? What do you discover about these bugs to indicate that they are really insects?

3. What can be said about the number of scale bugs? Why are they difficult to exterminate? How can they be distributed from one place to another, as from orchard to orchard, since only the males have wings?

Drawings suggested.

a. A single aphis as seen with hand lens.

b. Various scale bugs as seen with a hand lens.

c. Twigs showing the distribution and numbers of scale bugs.