How To Study Living Animals


A Study of Adaptations for Community Life


Preserved specimens of workers in small vials and in watch glasses, and some mounted specimens. A demonstration case showing the three kinds of members of the community, stages in the development of the workers and queens and the cells in which they are reared, specimens of the comb herunterladen. Small pieces of beeswax, a box of honey, and specimens of comb free for examination. Mounted preparations of mouth parts and stings. Simple lenses and compound microscopes.


The Worker Bee.

1. Observe and describe the form, size, regions, and covering of the bee. What are its colors herunterladen?

2. Observe and describe the texture, veining, relative size, and position of the wings. Discover how the fore and hind wings are hooked together. What advantage in having them hooked together?

3. For what kind of locomotion are the legs best adapted?

4. Find the pollen basket on the tarsus of a hind leg microsoft office kostenlos downloaden vollversion deutsch chip. How is it fitted for carrying pollen? What are the wax shears?

a. Examine and describe the structure at the posterior end of the body used for stinging. (Use a mounted preparation for this with low-power of microscope.)

b. The mouth parts are fitted for both biting and sucking. Find what makes this possible. (Use mounted preparation.)

5. Describe the antennæ and the number, position, and shape of the eyes. Are the eyes fitted for keen sight? Give reason for answer.

6. The worker bee gathers honey and pollen and defends the entire community from enemies. What various adaptations fit it for this work?

The Community of Bees.

1. How do the workers, drones, and queen differ in general appearance?

2. Describe the appearance of the comb and the arrangement and shape of the cells. Why this shape? How are the cells closed when full of honey?

3. How do the cells used for rearing worker bees differ from those used for rearing queens? What is the appearance of the larvæ? Of the pupa?

4. Examine and test in various ways a small piece of beeswax. What are the qualities possessed by this wax which make it suitable for making comb and protecting the home from storms?

Supplementary Studies of Bees

For this study an observation hive of bees or opportunity to visit an apiary will be helpful. If neither are practicable, then look up the answers in books. There are government bulletins on bee-keeping and much helpful information can be obtained from large dealers in bees and bee supplies.


1. How do bees protect their hives from rain and storm and light?

2. What are honey boxes? Where are they placed in the hive? Can the honey be removed late in the fall?

3. How is it safe to approach and handle bees in removing honey and caring for them?

4. What are their habits in entering and leaving the hive? What is the appearance of a returning loaded worker bee?

5. How do bees survive the winter? Why are the drones driven away or killed?

6. Watch bees gathering nectar and pollen from flowers and describe the process. Try following a bee on its journeys.

7. When the bees are in the hive, how may you know the queen and drones from the workers?

8. What is swarming? When does it take place? How is the swarm hived?

9. What is the home of wild honeybees? How found?

Summary of the Study of Honeybees

How is the work of the community of bees divided among the bees? How is each fitted for the work? What do you think of the success of this kind of life? Give reasons for your answer.