How To Study Living Animals

Materials herunterladen.

Both living and preserved specimens of the insects studied should be at hand, if practicable. There also should be specimens of the young herunterladen.


The Body.

1. What is the shape and size of the insect and the number of regions in its body? Does the shape seem to be in any way adapted to the mode of life of the insect microsoft office kostenlos downloaden vollversion deutsch chip? If so, how?


1. What methods of locomotion has the insect? Which is the most used?

2. What is the position of the wings when at rest? What is the texture (e.g. thick, smooth, leathery, shell-like, membranous) of the fore and hind wings?

3. For what kind of locomotion are the legs fitted? How?

Sense Organs.

1. How many antennæ has the insect? What is their character as to shape and length? How many simple and compound eyes?


1. What is the food of the insect? How are the mouth parts specially adapted to obtaining this food?

Note.—The mouth parts of insects may be jaws for biting, or may form a tube for sucking, or a beak for piercing and sucking.


1. Look for movements of the body indicating breathing, and describe what you find. Discover the location of the spiracles.


1. What are the enemies of this insect? (Among the most important enemies of insects are birds, certain other insects, and various small vertebrates such as frogs, snakes, lizards, turtles, etc.) How does the insect protect itself from these enemies?

2. Describe the shell with respect to thickness and flexibility. What is the character of the surface as to roughness or smoothness or covering of hairs or scales?

Reproduction and Development.

Note.—It may be necessary to get answers to these questions from books.

  1. Where are the eggs deposited? What is the number of the eggs? How soon do they hatch?
  2. What is the food of the larva or nymph? Are the food habits of the insects harmful to man? If so, how?
  3. Describe the larva as to form, color, and appendages. Is it capable of locomotion?
  4. Is the metamorphosis complete or incomplete? If complete, describe the pupa and tell where it may be found.