How To Study Living Animals


SOME COMMON BUTTERFLIES—A REFERENCE TABLE AND KEY

Group

Common Name

Wing Expanse in Inches

Broods

Food Plants of Caterpillar

Haunts of the Butterfly

Characteristic Colors, Markings, Etc.

Milkweed Butterflies

Monarch

4–4½

May and Oct.

Milkweed and dogbane

Open fields everywhere

Brick-red color, veins black, borders of wings black

Fritillaries or Silver Spots

Variegated fritillary

1¾–2½

August

Passion flower

Low fields

Orange-brown color, checkered with black, no silver spots herunterladen. A southern species

Regal fritillary

3–4

July, Aug.

Violets, pansies

Low fields

Upper side of wings reddish with wavy black lines, hind wing dark

Great spangled fritillary

3–4

July, Aug.

Violets, pansies

Meadows

Similar to idalia, but hind wings lighter herunterladen. Silver spots on under surface of wings

Silver-bordered fritillary

July, Aug., Sep.

Violets, pansies

Meadows, hillsides

Edge of wings tipped with silver, silver spots below

Meadow fritillary

July, Aug., Sep.

Violets, pansies

Meadows

No silver border, silver below

Checker Spots

Baltimore

1¼–2¼

June, July

Turtlehead and aster

Swamps

Groundwork of black with many red and white spots microsoft office kostenlos downloaden vollversion deutsch chip. Conspicuous border of red spots

Harris checker spot

June

Aster and daisy

Clover meadows

Wings dark bordered, lighter band across middle of wings

Crescent Spots

Silver crescent

1¼–2

July

Asters

Roadsides

Groundwork of orange-red mottled with black, silver crescents on under margin of hind wings

Pearl crescent

1¼–1?

July, Sep.

Asters, daisy

Roadsides

Similar to silver crescent but colors are paler

Angle wings

Comma

2

May, June, Aug.

Elm, nettle, hop

Along woods and waste places

Pale red, angled wings, under surface light gray marked with silver commas

Interrogation

May, July, Aug.

Elm, nettle, hop

Near trees

Similar to comma, but marked with silver semi-colons

Tortoise Shells

Compton’s tortoise

Feb., Oct.

Willow

Near water

Looks much like the angle wings, but has no silver spots

Milberts’s tortoise

May, June, Aug., Sep.

Nettle

Roadsides

Broad, reddish yellow band across both wings

Mourning cloak

3

Apr., July, Sep.

Willow, poplar

Everywhere

Black with yellow or cream-bordered wings

The Beauties

Red admiral

2

May, July, Sep.

Nettle, elm

Waste land

Bright red band circling across both wings

Painted beauty

2

May, July, Sep.

Everlasting, thistle, burdock

Thistles

Mottled with pink, black and white, under surface mottled, two large spots on under surface of hind wing

Thistle butterfly

2–2¼

May, July, Sep.

Thistles

Pastures

Like the painted beauty, but has several small eye spots

The White Admirals

Red-spotted purple

3

July

Wild cherry, apple, etc.

Near trees

Purple and blue above, six red spots on under surface of wings

Banded purple

July

Hawthorn

Open woods

A broad white band across both wings

Viceroy

June, Aug.

Poplar, willow

Roadsides

Imitates the monarch, but is smaller and has a black line across the hind wings

The Satyrs

Grass nymph

July

Grass

Meadows

Dull brown, twenty spots in two rows across the wings

Little wood satyr

July

Grass

Hillsides

Dull brown, six spots

Wood nymph

2

July

Grass

Hillsides

Dull brown, two eye spots on each fore wing in a larger yellow spot

Hairstreaks

Hop hairstreak

1?

May, July

Hop

About shrubbery

Dark color, hind wings have slender tail-like projection and black spots crowned with crimson

The Coppers

American copper

1

May, June, Sep.

Sorrel

Everywhere

Orange-red fore wings spotted with black, hind wing with orange border

The Blues

Common blue

1

May, July

Pea

Roadsides

Male light violet, female lighter with reddish bordered wings

Tailed blue

1

May, Aug., Sep.

Clover, etc.

Roadsides, fields

Purplish violet color, has small tail-like projection on hind wings

The Whites

Common white

2

May, July, Sep.

Mustard family

Gardens

White checkered with black on fore wings, female brownish

Cabbage butterfly

2

May, July, Sep.

Cabbage, etc.

Gardens

White, black tip on fore wing, one or two spots on hind wing

The Sulphurs

Common sulphur

m. 1¾, f. 2¼

May, June, Sep.

Clover

Meadows

Yellow, bordered with black

Cloudless sulphur

July

Cassia and legumes

Fields

Canary-yellow color

The Swallowtails

Tiger swallowtail

3–5

June, Aug.

Cherry, tulip tree

Open woods

Yellow with black lines across wings

Black swallowtail

3–4

June, Aug.

Parsley

Gardens, roadsides

Black with two bands of yellow spots and one band of blue spots

Green-clouded swallowtail

3¾–4¾

June, Sep.

Spice bush, sassafras

Open woods

Black, one row yellow spots, hind wing clouded with green

Blue swallowtail

3¾–4¼

July, Sep.

Dutchman’s pipe vine

Near houses

Black shaded with blue green, one row whitish spots


CHAPTER III
THE CONNECTION BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION