How To Study Living Animals


The Living Frog or Toad

To show how an Animal may be adapted to both Land and Water Life

Materials herunterladen.

Living frogs in small cages or aquaria; living toads; some pungent liquid, as ammonia.

Observations.

The Body herunterladen.

1. Contrast the body of the frog with that of the fish as to regions, shape, and compactness. How do you account for the differences?

Locomotion microsoft office kostenlos downloaden vollversion deutsch chip.

1. What kinds of locomotion can a frog use? Why is it difficult for a frog to crawl or walk? How far can a frog jump? How are swimming and jumping accomplished? What do you think is the use of the “hump” on the back?

2. Identify in the legs the thigh, shank, ankle, foot, toes, and web, and in the arm, the upper arm, forearm, wrist, hand, and fingers. State in detail the differences in structure and in position between the fore and hind limbs. How do you account for these differences?

Feeding.

1. Induce a frog or toad to eat by dangling food, such as a piece of raw meat or meal worms, small earthworms, etc., before it. How does it seize the food? What will it eat? How is the mouth adapted to this manner of feeding?

Respiration.

1. The frog has no diaphragm, and therefore no chest cavity; watch very carefully the movements of the mouth, the nostrils, the throat, and the sides of the body to determine how the problem of breathing (how the air is gotten into and out of the lungs) without a diaphragm is solved. Write a detailed account of the frog’s method of breathing which shall explain just how the air is forced into the lungs.

2. What would be the effect of propping open the mouth of the frog? Why? Does the frog breathe in the usual manner while under the water? If not, how do you explain its ability to remain under water for a long period of time?

Sense Organs.

1. Investigate the efficiency of the five special senses in the frog by devising experiments to test each sense; as, for example, giving a frog its liberty on the floor and trying to catch it again, to test the sense of sight. Write an account of your experiments and their results. Which of the senses is best developed? Give reasons for your answer.

2. Compare the eye of the frog with respect to its shape, movements, parts, and protective structures with that of the fish. In what respects are they similar? in what respects different? Why should they differ?

3. Where are the frogs’ ears located? What do you think of the efficiency of an eardrum situated on the surface of the body? Why?

4. The frog has certain other responses. Try turning the jar or cage containing a frog around to face the frog in another direction. What happens? How do you explain this response on the basis of use? What other responses have you noticed?

Protection.

1. Has the frog an exoskeleton? Describe the color scheme of the frog and explain how it may be protective. Why are frogs brighter in spring than in fall?

2. Why do frogs usually live near water? Do they ever leave the vicinity of streams? If so, when?

Summary.

In what ways is the frog adapted to water life? In what ways to life on land? In what respects do toads differ from frogs?