How To Study Living Animals


1. Of how many chambers does the frog’s heart consist? Name them, and describe them as to size, color, and structure herunterladen.

2. Which chamber receives blood from the body, and which receives blood from the lungs?

3. Name the large arteries and give the regions which they supply herunterladen. Name the large veins and give the regions from which they come.

4. Describe the lungs as to size, both when inflated and when uninflated. Describe their color; entirety or subdivision; texture microsoft office kostenlos downloaden vollversion deutsch chip.

5. In the inflated lung, notice the interior partitions or chambers, which are called vesicles. How do they affect the amount of surface exposed for gas exchange in breathing?

6. Measuring the lung collapsed and again when inflated, calculate its approximate volume in each case and state how much air it may take in during an inspiration.

7. Describe the diaphragm and state its probable use as a factor in respiration or as a partition.

Advanced questions.

1. Apparently the pure and the impure blood must commingle upon entering the single ventricle, but by a simple device this scarcely occurs. How would such commingling affect the purity of the blood as it reached the tissues, and hence affect waste removal, oxidation, body temperature, activity, and intelligence?

2. What are the chambers of the fish’s heart? of the mammalian (human) heart? How may the heart of the frog be regarded as intermediate between these others? How and where might the growth of a partition within it bring about the higher structure? (This actually occurs in certain reptiles.)

3. The lungs are said to be outgrowths of the alimentary canal. Explain how their connection would tend to show this.